Pests and Diseases

Be Aware of Yield Robbing Ants in Almond Orchards

Late April and May Are a Crucial Time to Survey Orchard for Ants

By Patrick Cavanaugh, with

Ants potentially can be a serious problem in almond orchards said Kris Tollerup a UC Cooperative Extension Area Wide IPM advisor based at the Kearney Agricultural Research and Extension center in Parlier, southeast or Fresno. “Ants can be a very serious problem,” Tollerup said.I’ve had growers get up to 12% damage, but the interesting thing is that there’s only a couple of ant species that are really important.”


And Tollerup said that’s the Southern fire ant and the pavement ant. And we asked Tollerup how a grower would go about identifying these ants. “You can go out and collect some ants using corn chips in vials and put out several vials into the orchard and collect them in the morning and throw them in the freezer and the next day, put them out on a plate and look at them with a hand lens. And there’s some very good resources on the University of California IPM website that’ll help identify those ants,” he said.

Tollerup noted sampling should be done anytime through April and May.It gives you plenty of time to get out there, identify those ants, and see what you got,” he said. “And the interesting thing is that you don’t have to sample, but just one time a year or maybe even one time every couple of years because ants don’t reinvest orchards very, very quickly.”

And if you have an ant issue, go to the UCI PM website on ants where they also have recommendations on control products. Again, over the next six weeks is a good time to be looking for those yield-robbing ants.

2021-05-12T11:01:44-07:00April 7th, 2020|

Liriomyza Leafminer Management on Spring Melon

Leafminer is Quite Active in Desert Melons

By John Palumbo, Professor/Extension Specialist, University of Arizona Department of Entomology

With spring melon production well under way, PCAs should be on the lookout for Liriomyza leafminer on cantaloupes, honeydews and watermelons.

Recent sticky trap catches from our area-wide monitoring network indicate that leafminer adults are becoming quite active and beginning to disperse where melons are being grown. In these trap locations, both Liromyza sativae and L. trifolii were found on traps. This is important because L. trifolii is typically more difficult to control with insecticides. Furthermore, the 10-day forecast calls for temperatures in the 80’s which will enhance leafminer larval development.

Leafminers can cause significant economic damage to melon plants, particularly on later planted spring melons. Mining of leaves by the larvae can cause direct injury to seedling plants by removing chlorophyl and reducing the plants photosynthetic capacity.

Mines and feeding punctures can also produce an entrance for pathogenic organisms. In severe infestations, leafmining may cause plant death, particularly to seedlings or transplant watermelons. During May and June, excessive leaf mining on older plants can cause leaves to dessicate and defoliate, resulting in sun burning of fruit and reduction in yield and quality.   Damage to mature plants can occur when attempting to hold the crop longer for extended harvests.

The good news is that several insecticide products are available that can effectively control both leafminer species.   Our research has shown that the most effective products are those that work via translaminar activity and can penetrate the leaf surface where they contact or are ingested by the developing larvae. These include Radiant (5-7 oz/ac), Coragen (5-7 oz/ac), Besiege (8-9 oz/ac), Exirel (15-20 oz/ac), Agri-Mek SC (3.5 oz) and Minecto Pro at 10 oz. These compounds can effectively kill newly emerged larvae in the leaf mines before they cause significant damage.

Because these products are selective, they have minimal impact on beneficial parasitic wasps that can be important in naturally suppressing leafminer populations. It is recommended that a penetrating adjuvant (e.g., MSO or MSO/Silicone blend) be added to these products to enhance translaminar movement of the product. For more information on leafminer biology and management please go to Leafminer Management on Desert Melons.




2021-05-12T11:01:44-07:00April 1st, 2020|

Sanitation for Navel Orangeworm Critical

Mandatory Sanitation and Almonds and Pistachios to Fight Navel Orangeworm?

By Patrick Cavanaugh

In the cotton pink bollworm program sanitation, a mandatory plow down of cotton stubble was a big part of the bollworm eradication strategy. Similarly in tree nuts the mummy nuts left in the tree post-harvest must be removed as they often harbor navel orangeworm larvae.

Joel Siegel is a USDA ARS entomologist based at Kearney near Fresno. He spoke recently at the American pistachio growers annual conference.

“Sanitation was a key element of the pink bollworm program. In fact, it was mandatory sanitation complete with people going out and checking and there were penalties for people that didn’t sanitize.,” noted Siegel. “One of the things that government does is they like to repeat all of the elements of what they think of as a successful program. If APHIS is making the investment, which they are in terms of providing the sterile insects for this navel orange worm program, logically they’re probably going to want mandatory sanitation as well.”

Again, it may be required to follow through with mandatory sanitation.

“There are challenges because we don’t have a standard. So what I tell people is to plan on getting everything out of the tree,” Siegel said.

2021-05-12T11:01:44-07:00March 31st, 2020|

Food Safety In the Produce Supply Chain

Food Safety is Paramount in Produce Industry

By Tim Hammerich, with The Ag Information Network of the West

Food safety is something everyone in the produce industry is concerned about, from growers all the way through the supply chain.

United Fresh Produce Association is a trade group that exists to empower produce industry leaders to join forces to shape sound government policy. California Ag Today’s Patrick Cavanaugh caught up with United Fresh President and CEO Tom Stenzel at the association’s Fresh Start Conference in Tucson.

“We’ve got to do a better job in traceability We’ve got to be able to get to the source of these issues right away. You know, our products are grown outside in nature,” said Stenzel. “There’s no kill step. We don’t cook our salads. So we’re probably never going to get to zero, but we’re going to keep getting better in prevention and then we’ve got to do better tracing it back.”

That traceability aspect can be a challenge in complex supply chains like those of some fresh produce. But Stenzel says their members are committed to finding innovative solutions.

“So the grower/shipper community, they’re trying to figure out how do I prevent food safety issues. And we’re learning a lot. Every time there’s an outbreak, as tragic as it is, we learn from it. And that’s really what the growers are trying to do right now, is to take every possible step of precaution in how they use water; or how they use compost,” said Stenzel. Making sure that we’re not contributing to contamination. Wholesalers, retailers, everybody’s got to work together on those things.”

Stenzel said just about every meeting they had around the Fresh Start Conference addressed some aspect of food safety.

2021-05-12T11:01:45-07:00February 10th, 2020|

DPR’s Dolcini to Focus on Three Pillars

Leadership, Collaboration, and People are the focus of Val Docini

Second of a series from DPR’s Director Val Docini. 
By Jesse Rojas, Editor

Val Dolcini, Director of the California Department of Pesticide Regulation, will focus on three pillars while leading DPR. The pillars represent organization and leadership principles that will allow DPR to continue to advance its mission of protecting public health and the environment through the careful and appropriate regulation of pesticides.

First Pillar: A Focus on IPM

“I’ll be using integrated pest management as a means of organizing the work of the department and as the foundation for closer collaboration with our stakeholders, such as the Almond Board. Using IPM principles, DPR can reinforce its role as a trusted leader in the regulation of pest management tools for urban and rural communities alike,” Dolcini said. “This will allow California to become significantly less reliant on chemical means as the first line of defense against agricultural and household pests.”

Dolcini stressed that the industry would continue to deploy appropriate chemical pesticides. “Chemical pesticides are an essential part of IPM, but we also need to include more biological controls, new cultural practices, softer chemistries, and safer alternatives into our arsenal,” he said. “To get there, we will continue to streamline our internal processes for approving these tools, and to create more demand for these tools in the value chain.”

“I realize that this is a tall order, but we’re at a pivotal point in the evolution of pest management in California. Changing pest pressures, increased urbanization, the desire for sustainably produced food, the need to seek and implement safer alternatives among many other issues all drive the demand to reexamined our views on pest management, Dolcini explained. “I think that we need to be in this conversation with the end in mind, and I commit to an ongoing dialogue about the future of pest management with folks from the agricultural, landscape, and structural pest community along with conservationists, worker health advocates, growers and others,”

Second Pillar: A Focus on Partnerships
“My second pillar focuses on partnerships with all stakeholder groups. DPRs work and mission must include the voices of all Californians. I want DPR to be a place where all stakeholders, ideas, and interests are welcome, not just to those who seek to register pesticides, but to those who are concerned about the impacts of those pesticides in their communities.

Dolcini is traveling to every corner of the state, to engage with Californians on pest management issues. “I’ll hold regular stakeholder meetings with anyone who seeks me out, and I look for opportunities to join my colleagues at DPR in initiatives that support our mission of protecting public health and the environment,” he said. “This is a dialogue that must be ongoing, and not just happen when a crisis occurs because trust is essential to successful engagement on pest management issues. Building trust takes time and effort. I believe that these partnerships, this engagement, this dialogue with agricultural groups will lead to stronger relationships and more creative solutions.”

Third Pillar: A Focus on the People of DPR.

“I believe that a department of government can only be successful in fulfilling its mandate when its employees are highly engaged. The leaders must be open, collaborative, and capable of articulating a vision that people can identify with; and where the workplace is known for mutually respectful and highly ethical behavior on the part of all of its employees,” explained Dolcini.

“I believe that the basis of DPR’s success is found in its employees. It’s my job to ensure that I’m responsive to their needs and concerns,” he said. “We need to provide more training opportunities for our future leaders and ensure that our internal and external recruitment efforts reflect the changing face of California.”

Dolcini said DPR also needs to be careful stewards of our resources, but at the same time manage the department’s affairs with an eye or the future. “We are investing in our people, our programs, and the systems that support them. Working towards these broad goals will lead to increased staff morale, bring more opportunities for professional development, and innovative, effective, and thoughtful public policy solutions,” he noted.

“In short, my vision for DPR is it a high-performing department of government that relies on a well trained and highly engaged workforce that relies on robust partnerships with a wide range of stakeholders, the best available science, sound management practices, and the ability to see around the corner at the possibilities that the future holds,” he said

“I have always believed in my career that when people of goodwill come together towards a common purpose, great things can and do happen,” said Dolcini.

2021-05-12T11:01:45-07:00January 30th, 2020|

DPR Chief Val Dolcini Speaks About His Dept.

Dolcini Describes His Department

First in a Series from his Presentation at the Almond Board Conf.
By Patrick Cavanaugh, Editor

California Department of Pesticide Regulation is uniquely positioned to serve the varied interest of California, noted Val Dolcini, DPR Director, appointed by Governor Gavin Newsom in Oct. 2019.

“For those that don’t know about us, it’s a department where science management and policy intersect to better protect public health and the environment, and hopefully to find common ground on some of the most challenging regulatory, legal, and political issues facing California,” he said.

Dolcini said DPR is a department that’s always in the crosshairs, always under the microscope, and often at the center of controversy, whether the decisions are large or small. “But, it’s also a department full of dedicated public servants, highly trained scientists, talented policy experts, hardworking attorneys, and many others at every level of the organization,” he said.

“In my first few months at DPR, we’ve worked on issues ranging from the first-ever cancellation of a widely used pesticide, issues related to cannabis enforcement, legislation that would ban certain rodenticides,” he said. “We have also focused on several serious pesticide drift incidents in the Central Valley, multi-agency conversations about endangered pollinators, and more trips to the Capitol than I thought possible.”

“So suffice it to say, we are a very busy department of government, and my colleagues and I aren’t simply counting the days, but, in the words of Muhammad Ali, we’re making those days count. We’re continuing to build a culture of customer-oriented accountability in every branch, every office, and at every level of DPR,” explained Dolcini.

Dolcini gave examples: “In a typical year, DPR receives and processes about 5,000 different submissions. This includes new product registrations and amendments to currently registered products. The submissions may be evaluated by multiple branches within DPR, before registration is granted or an amendment is accepted.”

This process is complex, and, as a result, DPR is constantly looking for ways to improve the process and provide that customer service to registrants. They are working to improve process efficiencies in each of the evaluation stations for these submissions.

“The turnaround time at the chemistry station for new products has gone from about a month to just several days,” said Dolcini. “We’ve also doubled the staff at our ecotoxicology station, and we’re starting to see significant reductions in the backlogs there.”

Dolcini also said that DPR is trying to aggressively re-launch the electronic data reporting system, which will now be known as CALPEST, California Pesticide Electronic Submission Tracking. This will allow for a more streamlined review of these submissions by DPR staff around the department. “Hopefully, it will help identify gaps in the submission process early in the process so that we don’t have to go back to registrants, asking for additional information.

2021-05-12T11:01:45-07:00January 20th, 2020|

San Bernardino County HLB Quarantine Boundaries May Expand


CDFA Proposes Expansion of HLB Quarantine Boundaries for San Bernardino County


Effective January 6, 2020, the Department is expanding the San Bernardino County Quarantine Boundary. A map of the proposed boundary can be found at

Regulated articles and conditions for intrastate movement under the quarantine can be found at Title 3 California Code of Regulations (CCR) section 3439. Pursuant to Title 3 CCR section 3439 any interested party or local entity may appeal a quarantine area designation.

Additionally effective January 6, 2020, the Department is expanding the ACP Bulk Citrus Regional Quarantine Zone 6 boundary in the San Bernardino County, Montclair area to mirror the recent expansion of the HLB quarantine area. A map of the proposed boundary can be found at:

Regulated articles and conditions for intrastate movement under the quarantine can be found at Title 3 California Code of Regulations (CCR) section 3435. Pursuant to Title 3 CCR section 3435, any interested party or local entity may appeal a quarantine area designation.

Process to Appeal the Proposed Expanded/Changed Boundary

The appeal must be submitted to the Department in writing and supported by clear and convincing evidence. The appeal must be filed no later than ten (10) working days from the date of this notification. During the pending of the appeal, the designated Quarantine Boundary under appeal shall remain in effect.


Mail Appeals to:

CDFA – Pest Exclusion

1220 N Street

Sacramento, CA 95814

2021-05-12T11:00:35-07:00January 6th, 2020|

Rachel Vannette: Unlocking the Mysteries of Flower Microbes

Rachel Vannette Seeks to Unlock the Mystery of Flower Microbes

By Kathy Keatley Garvey, Communications Specialist, UC Davis Department of Entomology and Nematology

Community ecologist Rachel Vannette of the UC Davis Department of Entomology and Nematology seeks to unlock the mysteries of flower microbes: how do plants protect against them, and can bees benefit from them? 

“I am interested in understanding and predicting how microbial communities influence interactions between plants and insects,” she says. The Vannette lab “uses tools and concepts from microbial ecology, chemical ecology, and community ecology to better understand the ecology and evolution of interactions among plants, microbes and insects.”

Now the UC Davis assistant professor has two more opportunities that will enable her to pursue her research: she recently received two National Science Federation (NSF) grants.

One is a five-year Faculty Early Career Development (CAREER) Program award, titled “Nectar Chemistry and Ecological and Evolutionary Tradeoffs in Plant Adaptation to Microbes and Pollinators.” NSF grants CAREER awards to early career faculty “who have the potential to serve as academic role models in research and education and to lead advances in the mission of their department or organization,” a NSF spokesman said.

The other is a three-year collaborative grant, “The Brood Cell Microbiome of Solitary Bees: Origin, Diversity, Function, and Vulnerability.”

Vannette serves as a co-principal investigator with professor Bryan Danforth, Cornell University; research entomologist Shawn Steffan of the USDA’s Agricultural and Research Service, University of Wisconsin; and assistant professor Quinn McFrederick, UC Riverside.

Of the CAREER grant, Vannette explained in her abstract: 
“Plants interact with a variety of organisms. The flowers and the nectar plants produce are adapted to attract beneficial organisms like bees or hummingbirds. However, microbes like bacteria and fungi also inhabit flowers and can reduce plant reproduction.
Plant traits can reduce microbial growth in nectar, but this may also reduce pollinator visitation. This project will investigate if plants that are pollinated by different organisms (e.g. birds vs bees vs flies) differ in their ability to reduce microbial growth and if nectar chemistry is associated with microbial growth.
This project will examine if nectar traits can be used to breed plants to be more resistant to harmful microbes without reducing attraction to pollinators. Resistance to microbes is beneficial in agricultural contexts where floral pathogens can limit food production but crops still rely on pollination. 
“This research will link variation in plant phenotype to microbial abundance and species composition, and microbial effects on plant-animal interactions,” she noted. “This project will use a tractable system: the microorganisms growing in floral nectar, which can influence floral visitors and plant reproduction.
The underlying hypothesis tested is that plant traits can facilitate or reduce microbial growth, and the community context (e.g., presence of pollinators) influence ecological and evolutionary outcomes.”
Vannette will perform the research activities using 1) a community of co-flowering plant species and 2) genotypes within California fuchsia (Epilobium canum). “Experiments will characterize variation in microbial growth, nectar chemistry, and microbial effects on plant reproduction and floral visitor behavior and the interactions of these factors,” she related in her abstract. “ Experiments and analysis will reveal how variation in nectar chemistry is associated with microbial growth and species composition in nectar, and subsequent effects on plant-pollinator interactions including plant reproduction. Experiments across Epilobium genotypes will elucidate how microbes affect microevolution of floral traits in a community context.”The project “will engage students from a large undergraduate class to participate in practitioner-motivated research projects,” she wrote. “Students from the Animal Biology major, including in the class ABI 50A will participate in outreach on pollinator-friendly plantings for horticultural and landscaping.
The project will support students recruited from diverse and underrepresented backgrounds to participate in independent projects related to project objectives, including hosting students through the Evolution and Ecology Graduate Admissions Pathway (EEGAP), a UC-HCBU program.” The program connects faculty and undergraduate scholars at both UC (University of California) and HBCU (Historically Black Colleges and Universities) campusesCollaborative Grant

The collaborative grant will enable the researchers to do cutting-edge research as they investigate the diverse community of bacteria and yeasts in the pollen and nectar diet of bees.

“Bees are the single most important pollinators of flowering plants worldwide,” the co-investigators wrote in their abstract. “Over 85% of the 325,000 flowering plant species on earth depend on animals for pollination, and the vast majority of pollination is carried out by bees.

Annually, bees are estimated to contribute $15 billion to US crop production and $170 billion to global crop production. High-value bee-pollinated crops include apple and other early spring tree fruits, strawberries, blueberries, cherries, cranberries, squash and pumpkins, tomatoes, almonds, and many others. The economic viability of US agricultural production is dependent on stable and healthy wild and domesticated bee populations.”

“However, bee populations are threatened by a variety of factors, including habitat loss, pathogen spillover, invasive plants and animals, and pesticide use, which can disrupt the normal microbial symbionts essential for bee larval development (the ‘brood cell’ microbiome),” they pointed out in their abstract.

“This research project focuses on understanding what role microbes play in the larval nutrition in a wide variety of bee species. Previous research has documented a diverse community of bacteria and yeasts in the pollen and nectar diet of bees. As larvae consume these pollen/nectar provisions they are ingesting microbes, and our preliminary results indicate that these microbes form an essential component of the larval diet.

This project has the potential to significantly modify how we view the 120 million-year-old partnership between bees and flowering plants, and will provide essential information for developing long-term bee conservation efforts. Project outreach efforts include educational activities on solitary bees for K-12 students and interactive demonstrations of bee-microbe-flower interactions for broad audiences.

The co-principal investigators said that the project will use cutting-edge methods to (1) document the microbial diversity in flowers and pollen provisions, (2) determine the nutritional role of microbes in larval development and health, and (3) understand how alterations in microbial community impact larval development.

To document microbial diversity in both host-plant flowers and pollen provisions, the research team will use amplicon sequencing and microbial metagenomics. These methods will document the microbial species present in pollen provisions as well as the metabolic activities these microbes perform during pollen maturation. Screening the pollen and nectar of host-plant species will provide key insights into the source of the brood cell microbiome. To determine the nutritional role of the microbial community the research team will use two methods from trophic ecology: compound specific isotope analysis and neutral lipid fatty acid analysis. These analyses will permit the research team to track the origin (floral or microbial) of amino acids and fatty acids in the larval diet of 15 focal bee species.

Finally, through manipulative laboratory experiments, the research team will determine how modifications of the microbial communities impact larval development. They hope by combining the results of these studies, the researchers will provide a comprehensive understanding of how bees and flowering plants interact via their shared microbial partners.

The collaborative project is funded jointly by the Systematics and Biodiversity Sciences Cluster (Division of Environmental Biology) and the Symbiosis, Defense and Self-recognition Program (Division of Integrative Organismal Systems).

Vannette, a Hellman Fellow, joined the UC Davis Department of Entomology and Nematology in 2015 after serving as a postdoctoral fellow at Stanford University’s biology department. As a Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation Postdoctoral Fellow from 2011 to 2015, she examined the role of nectar chemistry in community assembly of yeasts and plant-pollinator interactions.

A native of Hudsonville, Mich., Vannette received her doctorate in ecology and evolutionary biology from the University of Michigan, in 2011. Her dissertation was entitled “Whose Phenotype Is It Anyway? The Complex Role of Species Interactions and Resource Availability in Determining the Expression of Plant Defense Phenotype and Community Consequences.”

2021-05-12T11:01:45-07:00December 16th, 2019|

Nutria Swamp Rats Need Control

$7 Million Legislation Announce to Battle Nutria Swamp Rats

By Patrick Cavanaugh, Editor

The nutria swamp rat, similar in size of the common beaver, with a very high reproduction rate, is capable of wide destruction to farm waterways. It has gotten so bad in California that Congressman Josh Harder of Modesto has introduced legislation in order to get funding in an attempt to eradicate the invasive pests.

Josh Harder

Congressman Harder

These swamp rats are taking over California. And for those who aren’t familiar with what a nutria is, it is a giant 40-pound rodent that causes flooding, divert water and eat through farm canals destroy the entire wetlands that the Central Valley relies on.

One of the challenges is that they grow exponentially and one female can have 200 offspring a year. “If we don’t nip this in the bud within a couple of years, they’re going to go from seeing one or two here and there to 250,000 of them in the next five years if we don’t nip it in the bud. So that’s why it’s so critical to get this done early,” noted Harder.

Harder is trying to invest $7 million to eradicate this while it is still early. “While we still have time, we’ve seen this nutria problem in two different states. In Louisiana, they did not nip this problem in the bud and now these nutrients are everywhere. You can’t go two yards without seeing one of these rodents in ag country. It’s really disruptive and they have destroyed a lot of the levies and a lot of the wetlands and, and wrecked-havoc on farms all over Louisiana,” Harder explained.

“On the other hand, Maryland has had an eradication program that has been quite successful, now there are no nutria left in that state. What my bill is trying to do is take that Maryland program and extend it into California because we know it works,” he said.

Controlling nutria is done mostly by trapping right now. But what Maryland has done is they catch one, they sterilize it, and then they throw it back into the population. That female then sniffs out all of its mates and then once we have identified the entire den, all the nutrias are eradicated, with an air gun dart, in a humanly way.  “It’s actually a pretty clever program to make sure that you’re getting every single last one because the issue here is because of that exponential reproduction and growth rate, If we don’t get every animal, it’s never going to end. We have to make sure we’re getting down to zero,” Harder said.

And while nutria is similar looking to beavers, beavers do not have 200 offspring a year. Beavers create their own dams. They’re living their peaceful life, but beavers aren’t out there destroying almonds. They’re not out there destroying canals. So, they may look similar, but the nutria is an invasive species and because it grows so quickly, it’s much more important to make sure we’re rooting them out early.

Optimistic the Legislation Will Pass

“I’m very optimistic about it because we have a really strong precedent for this issue. This is a bipartisan issue supported by Republicans and Democrats. We can point to the federal program that has been successful in Maryland.

“And you know, the biggest thing I hear from folks is they say, why should we spend $7 million on this program? And I say, if we don’t spend $7 million today, our farmers are going to be spending hundreds of millions, if not billions,” said Harder, “Over time, because if you look at how much Louisiana is spending right now, they have no hope of eradication. This is a fiscally responsible measure because it’s going to prevent major problems and expenses.”

Nutrias were originally introduced to the United States as part of the fur trade in the late 1800s but were eradicated from California in the 1970s. The species was rediscovered in the Central Valley in 2017. There have been 531 nutrias removed from the Central Valley since this first sighting.

2021-05-12T11:01:45-07:00November 26th, 2019|

Mating Disruption For NOW Works

Trials Show that Mating Disruption Works Well to Offset NOW Damage

By Patrick Cavanaugh, Editor

Mating disruption for navel orangeworm works. David Haviland is a UCANR, farm advisor, Kern County. “We all know navel orangeworm is not a simple pest to control and it takes an integrated pest management approach. We know the base of that sanitation—getting rid of all the mummies in the winter to make sure that we reset the clock when navel orangeworm comes back in the spring,” noted Haviland.

“We know that the earlier you harvest, the better you’re going to be. So early and timely harvest is going to help. We know insecticides helped. They’ve been around a while and they’re effective and, certainly, people are using them,” said Haviland. “At the same time, those three things alone don’t always control the pest to the level you need. And that’s where mating disruption can come in as the other leg on the IPM chair.”

Haviland has tested the mating disruption products. Currently, there are three different groups of products registered. There are the aerosol products that releases pheromone throughout at certain intervals throughout the season. The second group, what we call the Meso emitter, that’s a rubber strip that’s hung in the trees that passively releases the pheromone all year and the third group, which is new, is as a sprayable pheromone. It’s one that you put in the tank and you spray it along with an insecticide or fungicide.

“In 2017 trials the big take-home message this that all three of the aerosol products were effective. They all work well, as does the Meso emitter, so all those work about the same,” noted Haviland.

In 2017/2018 Haviland had larger trials that confirmed their previous results. “The earlier trial showed a 40 to 50% reduction in damage, while the later trial on larger acreage showed a 60 to 70% reduction in damage, which was a positive return on investment to the grower,” he said.  In 2018, Haviland conducted the first UC trial on sprayable pheromone products.  They did not work very well.

2021-05-12T11:01:45-07:00November 15th, 2019|
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